The fact sheet makes a punctual review of WATCH main engagements within the international context since its conception
18 May 2016 – FONDEMA round table in The Hague (Netherlands)
WATCH Secretary General was invited and participated with a contribution at a round table discussion on: ‘Cultural Heritage in Today’s Southern Mediterranean Region: Exploring the state of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and contemporary safeguarding efforts’. The event was organised by FONDEMA at The Hague University. Fondema is a Foundation that works towards a renewed dialogue between Europe and the Southern Mediterranean shore and Africa and the round table in The Hague was embedded within that institutional mission.
11 March 2016 – FOCUH (KUMID) 10th Anniversay in Istanbul (Turkey)
WATCH took part to the celebration of its Turkish partner association FOCUH (Friends of Cultural Heritage. FOCUH is a very active national NGO focusing on cultural heritage protection. Since its foundation the association was able to achieve consistent results to promote awareness, studies, research, training, and support in institutional capacity development within the framwork of international cooperation projects supported by the EU, the World Bank, UNESCO, etc. WATCH was invited to contribute with a review of the cooperation between the two organisations during the last decade within a one day workshop in Istanbul that was attended by relevant national and international authorities, stakeholders and associates.
16 February 2016 – WATCH Board of Trustees meeting (Int.l)
A special meeting of the Board of Trustees took place to discuss a draft long term policy for the association. A review was conducted of the first decade of the association life, achievement and weakness since its establishment. The increased pressure on natural and cultural heritage posed by climate changes, natural events and a human action of extraordinary magnitude requires that all actors engaged in their protection contribute to develop effective, efficient and realistic measures within a logic of international cooperation. With this in mind the BoT considers to increase WATCH efforts to provide concrete support to help protect cultural heritage under threat upon request by the legitimate authorities and in line with the 1954 Hague Convention and international law at large.
16 December 2015 – Ongoing, Tbilisi (Georgia)
WATCH HQ (Rome) is backstopping the Georgian concerned authorities in the preparation of the Dossier to be submitted to UNESCO Secretariat of the Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention for the nomination of Mtskheta World Heritage Sites’ to enhanced protection.
9-11 December 2015, UNESCO – Paris (France)
Observer at the 10th Meeting of the of the Committee for the protection of Cultural Properties in the Event of Armed Conflict at UNESCO. WATCH participation to this important yearly appointment represents the most important moment for the association development of a network of relations with several organisations and agencies. WATCH is now considered one of the referent NGOs engaged for the implementation of the Convention, alongside and not as alternative to the Blue Shield. WATCH still represents the sole international association dedicated to the Convention by Statutes and concretely engaged in the field despite the lack of financing and support.
18-20 November 2015, ICCROM – Rome (Italy)
Observer at ICCROM XXIX General Assembly in Rome. WATCH is by now considered a partner to ICCROM. At the GA WATCH SG took a stand emphasising the importance for ICCROM as well as more in general for all Intergovernmental Organisations to increase cooperation with the specialised NGOs in view of the increased and widespread needs for cultural heritage protection. An intervention that received positive comment in reaction directly from ICCROM DG who highlighted ICCROM intention to re-establish an active cooperation with NGOs worldwide.
2-4 November 2015, Vienna (Austria)
Saader Guner, WATCH Trustee & Founder, President of Friends of Cultural Heritage FOCUH (Turkey) and Scientific Committee member at the 20th International Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies (http://www.chnt.at) presented a paper on the History of the Protection of the Cultural Heritage in Conflict during the session: Conflict as Cultural Heritage: Cultural Heritage in Conflict.
23 October 2015, Mtskheta (Georgia)
Site visits of the facilities selected to be adapted to host the new Archaeological Museum in the World Heritage city of Mtskheta. Meeting with the Mayor and Mtskheta Local Mtskheta to review risk preparedness measures currently implemented for the protection of the World Heritage Sites of Mtskheta in line with the Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention.
21-22 October 2015, Gori (Georgia)
An introductory training in risk preparedness and mitigation planning and implementation for the protection of museums was carried out at the Ethnographic Museum of Gori. Two WATCH experts gave the training in cooperation with the Georgian National Committee of the Blue Shield.
19-20 October 2015, Tbilisi (Georgia)
Inter-agency meetings carried out in coordination with the Georgian Ministry of Culture and Monuments Protection. Aimed to promote inter-agency cooperation for the protection of cultural heritage in line with the 1954 Hague Convention and its two Protocols. The draft Master Plan being prepared for the World Heritage sites of the city of Mtskheta was presented.
8 May – 27 August 2015 (International):
WATCH lead design of RTD project proposals submitted under EU H2020 calls for proposals. Objectives of the proposed research activities focused on the development of augmented IT/ICT to improve resilience and promote active mitigation measures for the protection of cultural heritage exposed to extreme natural events and human activities.
23-26 March 2015, Algiers (Algeria):
In the framework of the ‘Journée d’étude sur les monuments Numides: Le Tombeau D’imadghessen’, at the invitation of the Algerian Ministry of Culture, WATCH SG delivered a key note speech on: Public Private Cooperation in Site Management Planning for World Heritage Sites. An event co-organised within the EU – Algeria bilateral cooperation programme ‘Patrimoine’ currently being implemented in Algeria.
11-13 March 2015, Lyon (France):
At the invitation of the Interpol Headquarters’ WATCH associate Ms. Isabelle Delas was delegated to release a presentation on the role of the specialised NGOs with a focus on their juridical status in the implementation of the Hague Convention and its two additional Protocols.
15-18 February 2015, Beirut (Lebanon):
Support to the Council of the United Municipalities of Mtskheta during the Audit report ex-post EU CIUDAD WFWHLC project. Considering trainings on the implementation of Risk Preparedness Planning within Civil Defence protocols of intervention. In partnership with Byblos Local authorities.
18-19 December 2014, UNESCO Paris (France):
Observer at the 9th Meeting of the of the Committee of the Second Protocol to the (1954) Hague Convention on the protection of Cultural Properties in the Event of Armed Conflict at UNESCO.
December 2014, Tbilisi (Georgia) – Rome (Italy):
Inter-agency Cooperation Board_Organisation of an advanced Civil Military Cooperation training on: Risk Preparedness Planning. Progressive Mitigation and Response measures based on set risk parameters critical theatres (summer-autumn 2015).
January 2014 still on-going, ( Austria,Georgia,Italy and Lebanon):
1. Various authors. ‘Civil Military Cooperation and Risk preparedness planning for urban world heritage sites. City planning and regulatory policies in line with international law’.
2. Various authors. ‘Reccommendations for the preparation of nomination dossiers for the enhanced protection of world heritage sites according to the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention. Strenghts and threats found in the participatory approach between Institutions and Civil Society Organisations’.
January – November 2014, International:
Advanced research programmes within Horizon 2020 & JPI CH Plus. Design project proposals to develop research on Sciences and Augmented Technology to increase capacity to contrast or mitigate crime on movable and immovable heritage in critical areas. WATCH in a partnership with: University of Rome Sapienza, University of Porto (Portugal), University of Valencia (Sp), University of Oxford (UK), ICOMOS-ICORP, and other INGOs.
18-19 December 2013, UNESCO – Paris (France):
Observer at the eight Meeting of the Committee of the 1999 Second Protocol of the (1954) Hague Convention on the protection of Cultural Properties in the Event of Armed Conflict at UNESCO.
27-29 November 2013, ICCROM Rome (Italy):
Observer at ICCROM XXIX General Assembly in Rome. Since 2010 WATCH consulted ICCROM preparing for the training on First Aid to Cultural Heritage within a restricted international expert meeting. The cooperation became even more consistent during the EU CIUDAD WFWHLC project ended up December 2013. Since than relations were maintained with periodic meetings between ICCROM DG and WATCH SG in Rome.
13-14 November 2013, Istanbul (Turkey):
EU ENPI CIUDAD Final Event & Covenant of Mayor. WATCH paper on lessons learned within War Free World Heritage Listed Cities project achieved results & sustainability factors. Presentation by WATCH Trustee Prof. R. Chamoun.
2-4 September 2013, Strasbourg (France):
ICOMOS CIPA XIV International Symposium. WATCH presentation on: ‘Protection of Cultural Heritage in Urban areas during peace and conflict times from threats to risk preparedness as a shared responsibility’.
6-10 October 2013, Georgia & Lebanon:
Public Awareness Campaigns in Secondary Schools of Mtskheta and Byblos direct to students aged 13-17 to raise awareness about value of movable and immovable heritage, increase the sense of belonging and develop a participatory attitude conceived for the Youth.
1-5 September 2013, Mtskheta (Georgia):
Within the framework of the CIUDAD WFWHLC project, WATCH co-organised and implemented Civil Military Training for the protection of Movable and immovable heritage in times of crisis making reference to NATO indicative thematic programming and including EU codified CBRN threats.
14-20 February 2013, Tbilisi (Georgia):
Round of institutional meetings of coordination with HE the Minister of Culture, the Mayor of the Municipality of Mtskheta and Georgian members of Parliament to review the draft dossier to nominate Mtskheta World Heritage Sites’ to enhanced protection under the 1999 Hague Protocol.
20-21 December 2012, UNESCO Paris (France):
WATCH participated as observer to the Seventh Meeting of the Committee for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
25-26 June 2012, Ankara (Turkey):
EU IPA STERM programme. International conference on: Risk Management in Museums. Presentation by WATCH Trustee Ms. Saadet Guner on: ‘The protection of museums, archives and movable cultural heritage enclosed within urban areas’.
25 June to 25 July 2012, Byblos (Lebanon):
On June 25th 2012 the Byblos International Festival began and thanks to a coordination between the Council of the United Municipalities of Jbail with the Municipality of Byblos, WATCH and the Festival, the project War Free World Heritage Listed Cities has been active alongside this important event promoting a widespread public awareness campaign on the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its two Protocols. Tens of thousands among the public attending the Festival were approached while many were informed and explained more in details. The campaign was coordinated locally by WATCH Trustee Prof. R. Chamoun.
22-24 May 2012, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates):
Regional Symposium on “Protection of Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis”. WATCH participated to the International symposium on the “Protection of Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis” organised by ICCROM ATHAR Regional Conservation Centre.
Dr. Talal Akasheh, WATCH Chairman of the Board of Trustees, and Dr. Claudio Cimino, WATCH Secretary General, delivered a speech titled: ‘Dossiers to enlist urban world heritage cities at risk on the enhanced protection list under the Second Protocol of the 1954 Hague Convention’. WAR FREE WORLD HERITAGE LISTED CITIES – a case study.
20 March 2012, Ravenna (Italy):
A speech was delivered by WATCH SG on an invitation by the University of Bologna, Faculty of Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Department of History and Methods for the Cultural Heritage Conservation. The speech was organised within the framework of a series of conferences on: “World Heritage Protection. Results and perspectives”. WATCH promoted its current activities raising public awareness on the EU CIUDAD project WAR FREE WORLD HERITAGE LISTED CITIES and other current initiatives. The presentation of the methodology used to design and implement Risk Preparedness Plans in world heritage listed urban areas as a factor of good governance was the main focus of the speech. The idea of the institution of restricted permanent Thematic Committees in support to WATCH contribution to the implementation of the 1954 Hague Convention was also part of the speech. During his visit WATCH SG also attended as co-supervisor to the discussion of an MA thesis entitled “UNESCO for the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Byblos (Lebanon): the digitized catalogue project”. A thesis elaborated within the framework of the institutional activities promoted by NEREA (a spin-off of the University of Bologna with the Municipality of Bologna and ENEA), Associate partner in the WFWHLC project.
1-3 March 2012, Kocaeli (Turkey):
International Conference “exCHange for a challenge. ”WATCH co-organized with FOCUH the conference at the conclusion of the project “ExCHange” in higher education for restoration, conservation and risk management of works of art. A cooperation project between Turkey and EU within the CSDII Programme.
14-16 December 2011, UNESCO Paris (France):
WATCH participated as observer to the sixth meeting of the International Committee for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.
30 October through 5 November 2011, Rome – Turin (Italy):
A Study Tour in Rome and Turin (Italy) took place from October the 30th through the 5th of November 2011. An initiative that was organised within the framework of the project ExCHange ‘Experience for change within the Cultural Heritage sector’ as a part of the EU IPA programme Civil Society Dialogue II – Culture and Arts Grant Scheme.
Objective of this activity is to accompany the Turkish target group on a visits to the Italian centres of excellence in the fields of restoration, conservation and risk management of works of art, paying special attention to the field of ceramics and textiles. Higher education and research centres, Institutions and Specialised SME were mostly targeted by the tour.
19-21 October 2011, Graz (Austria):
INTERNATIONAL VOLUNTEERING CONFERENCE (MUSIS). European Heritage in our hands, ‘Volunteering as mutual challenge and opportunity for the civil society’. The EU ENPI CIUDAD WFWHLC project’s main objectives were presented by WATCH Mr.
Emanuele Marocco. Results achieved were also shared with the audience, the specific problems addressed by the action were explained.
April 2011 – March 2012, Rome (Italy) Istanbul/Kocaeli (Turkey):
ExCHange, Experience for Change within the Cultural Heritage Sector. A twelve months EU funded project within the frame of EU & Turkey Civil Society Dialogue II – Culture and Art Component. WATCH implemented the project as a partner with the Turkish NGO FOCUH (Friends of Cultural Heritage) grant beneficiary. The University of Kocaeli (Turkey), the Sapienza University of Rome (Italy) and the Municipality of Korfez (Turkey) were project associates.
22-24 November 2010, UNESCO – Paris (France):
WATCH participated as observer to the Fifth Meeting of the Committee for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict at UNESCO HQ.
20-24 October 2010 Çanakkale (Turkey):
WORLD UNIVERSITIES CONGRESS – Protecting cultural her itage. ‘Expanding the role of nongovernmental organizations in the protection of the cultural heritage’ A review of the margins for civil society to help implement preventive policies and contrast actions when war rules are about to dictate the conditions. Organised by the Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesity.
5-6 July 2010 Mechelen (Belgium):
CIVIL SOCIETY AND HERITAGE – Conference on Voluntary organisations active in the field of Heritage. Presentation of WATCH and projects ongoing promoted by the association.
March 2010 to December 2013: in the frame of the EU project Cooperation in Urban Development and Dialogue ‘CIUDAD‘, WATCH was partner of the three-years project named WAR FREE WORLD HERITAGE LISTED CITIES, with the Council of the United Municipalities of Jbail-Byblos (Lebanon), the Board of the Municipality of Mtskheta (Georgia) and the Old City Rehabilitation and Development Fund – OCRD (Georgia). The Friends of Cultural Heritage – FOCUH (Turkey) and the Network for Advanced Technologies – NEREA (Italy) were Associates in the project.
24-26 February 2010, Rome (Italy):
WATCH contributed in Planning Meeting for the course on: ‘First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Timesof Conflict’. A training periodically organised by ICCROM.
13-14 December 2009, Sanremo (Italy):
International Experts Meeting on: ‘Guidelines for the implementation of the Second Protocol of the 1954 Hague Convention for the protection of Cultural Properties during times of armed conflicts’. Organised by the International Institute for Humanitarian Law.
13-14 May 2009, Rome (Italy):
L’oro dei Daci – International Conference on the role of Civil Society in theme of protection of Cultural Heritage. Actions of prevention and contrast to illicit and damage in areas of armed conflicts. Co-organised by the Academy of Romania in Rome and the Museum of the Roman Fora.
9-13 December 2008, Rome (Italy):
Under the Patronage of HRH Princess Wejdan Ali of Jordan, WATCH organised the VI International Conference: Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation. An initiative promoted in cooperation with El Legado Andalusi (Spain) and support from the Italian National Museum of Oriental Arts in Rome (Italy) and the Board of Architects of Rome (Italy).
13-14 June 2008, Jeju (Republic of Corea):
The Executive Council of the UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organisation approved WATCH application as an affiliated member. Final ratification of the decision was taken by UNWTO General Assembly in Kazakhstan in October 2009.
3 April 2008, Ferrara (Italy):
XV Salone dell’Arte del Restauro e della Conservazione – Fair of Art and Restoration Conference on ‘The role of CH operators and stakeholders in the preparation for Cultural Heritage protection during times of peace’.
4-5 March 2008. Pisa (Italy):
EC Interreg MEDOCC programme – Lecture on ‘Cultural Heritage Management – Tra buone intenzioni e realtà in evoluzione. Sulla necessità di conciliare politica, cultura, scienza e tecnologia applicate alla gestione del patrimonio culturale.
7-9 February 2008, Tallin (Estonia):
International conference. Protecting Cultural Heritage in times of Armed Conflicts. Second Protocol to the Hague Convention – How to make it work.
12-13 January 2007, Rome ( Italy ):
Conference on ‘Patrimonio culturale a rischio da cause naturali e dall’azione dell’uomo: sviluppi recenti e vecchie malattie’. CRIC Thematic Seminar on ‘Ambiente: Sfide e Soluzioni’.
17-19 December 2007. Leuven (Belgium):
Seminar on ‘Preventive Conservation, Monitoring, Maintenance of the architectural heritage- PreCOMOS’. Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC) at the Katholieke Universiteit in Leuven (KUL). An International initiative for the creation of a specialised UNESCO Chair was hosted at the KUL. WATCH attended the seminar and gives support to this initiative.
3-24 November 2007, Bologna (Italy):
Conference: ‘Proteggere l’Arte proteggere le persone’ – key speaker at the Final round table on ‘Cultural Heritage protection within the current armed conflict’. Oratory of San Filippo Neri.
6-9 November 2007, Vienna (Austria):
10th Civil Military Relations Seminar (CMRX). Cultural ‘Heritage under threat during armed conflicts. Drawing scenarios for an active civil society in times of crises’. National Military Academy.
7-11 July 2007, Granada – Baeza (Spain):
V International Conference on Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation. WATCH co-organised the conference in cooperation with the Legado Andalusi, the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), the Department of Antiquities of Jordan, and the University of Granada.
A Workshop on ‘Risk and Preparedness for CH protection in times of conflicts’ was organised by WATCH within the framework of the conference. A multidisciplinary panel at expert level joined to address the topic at the highest level.
4 December 2006, Rome (Italy) Izmir (Turkey):
WATCH and its Turkish sister Association FOCUH (see: http://www.kumid.eu/en/) jointly initiated the study for a project to develop internationally shared strategy for the promotion of public awareness (targeting both military and civil society) on the needs to protect cultural heritage during times of armed conflicts. An international network set with the participation of WATCH associate members from several countries is set to implement the project. Forecast submission for financing of the project proposal due in 2008.
8-10 November 2006, Vienna (Austria):
9th International Civil-Military Relations Seminar. At the National Defence Academy. Institute for Human and Social Sciences.
11-13 July 2006, Rome (Italy):
The yearly Board of Trustees meeting took place at the Istituto del Catalogo e della Documentazione of the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage in Rome. For the first time a general meeting of the eleven elected members of the BoT took place to set a long term comprehensive policy for the association.
13-14 March 2006, Cairo (Egypt):
WATCH founding members met for a two days gathering held in Cairo (Egypt) using a videoconferencing modality, under the kind hospitality of Maged Farrag. At the meeting the yearly plan of action for WATCH was discussed among other important institutional issues. Participants to this meeting were: Prof. Talal Akasheh (Jordan,), Prof. Hisham Elkadi (United Kingdom), Dr. Claudio Cimino (Italy), Saadet Güner (Turkey), Drs. Joris Kila (Netherlands), Maged Farrag (Egypt) and Prof. Giovanni Gigante (Italy).
6 May 2005 Ancona (Italy):
Mediterranean Voices Exhibition about Shared Spaces in Times of Crises Exhibition as a common theme among five cities: Alexandria, Ancona, Bethlehem, Beirut and Split. Inaugural speech on: ‘The value of Cosmopolitan Cultural Heritage as a peculiar factor for the economic urban development’. Plans for the foundation of WATCH as new international NGO specialised in the implementation of the UNESCO 1954 Hague Convention were also explained.
27 December 2005, Rome (Italy):
WATCH was registered on December the 27th in Rome, Italy “as a non Profit Association’. The existence of WATCH is since now official.
7-11 December 2005, Amman (Jordan):
During the Opening and Closing Sessions of the “Fourth International Conference on Science and technology in Archaeology and Conservation” held in Jordan, the foundation of WATCH was announced to the participants and its web site (http://www.eyeonculture.net) prepared by Maged Farrag (Egypt). Side meetings were held to assess actions still necessary to finalise WATCH set up
June 2005, Rome (Italy):
Follow up Committee meeting at MiBAC-ICCD. During this meeting the concept of WATCH was exposed to a number of selected experts as part of the efforts made to gain further support in the institutional establishment of the association.
19 May 2005, Florence (Italy):
Giornata di Studi a Palazzo Vecchio su: Tutela dei Beni Culturali come strumento per la cultura della pace. Paper presented: “Recent calls on Governments towards the ratification of the 2ndProtocol of the Hague Convention”.
15-17 April 2005, Amman (Jordan):
Workshop on Cultural Heritage Management in times of conflicts. Paper presented: ‘Assessing prevention and intervention feasibility. Three key factors in operative Cultural Heritage Management during conflict’.
16 April 2004, Amman (Jordan):
EuropAid Euromed Heritage Programme II & III International Workshop on Cultural Heritage protection during times of armed conflicts / The Message from Amman. WATCH members coorganised and animated the international workshop with individual and institutional participant experts from 27 countries members of the EU MEDA programme and international Organisations including UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS, ICOM and the International Committee of the Red Cross.
7-11 December 2004, Amman (Jordan):
Progress in the foundation of WATCH were announced during the Opening Session of the “Third International Conference on Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation” held in Jordan. The follow up committee members and new members worked at refining WATCH Statutes, its logo and the preparation of its web site. Several new members subscribed at the closing ceremony.
18-21 July 2004, Izmir (Turkey):
The Follow up Committee members Dr. Claudio Cimino and Prof. Hisham Elkadi were invited by Mrs Saadet Guner to meet in İzmir on the occasion of the launching event of a training on the protection of cultural heritage that she organised with support from the WB programme in Turkey in cooperation with the local and regional authorities. This project represented the first concrete pilot experience in Civil Military cooperation promoted by a member of WATCH in line with the mission of the association. At the meeting the modalities to be followed for the official registration of WATCH were discussed.
7-8 April 2004, Rome (Italy):
The Follow up Committee members met in Rome with other cultural heritage experts to define the statutes, objectives, action plan, etc. of the new organisation. The name chosen for the new NGO WATCH was confirmed by all the participants and its objectives were clearly stated. The statutes were discussed based and inspired on existing templates and finally drafted in a preliminary version. After several modifications and discussions the final version was handed for text revision and final issue.
7-11 December 2003, Amman (Jordan):
Participants and speakers from all over the World joined in at the “Second International Conference on Science and Technology in Archaeology and Conservation” expressing their deep regret for the destruction and looting of Iraqi Cultural Heritage objects and sites that took place eight months earlier. On that occasion, at a workshop entitled “Protection of Cultural Heritage during Times of Conflict”, the need for the creation of a new international voluntary entity especially dedicated to help protect cultural heritage during time of armed conflict was pointed out by participant Ms Saadet Guner (Turkey). The panel chaired by Prof. Talal Akasheh (Jordan), proposed the establishment of a follow up committee to discuss this matter and make recommendations to the Conference. The selected Committee during the conference was integrated by: Prof. Talal Akasheh (Jordan); Dr. Nasser Al Shawi (Iraq); Prof. Hisham Elkadi (United Kingdom); Dr. Lina Khamis (UNESCO – Jordan); Prof. Jan Gunneweg (Israel); Prof. Maria Luisa Vitobello van Der Shoot, (Italy); Ms Eloise Aufret (France); Ms Saskia Ooms (Belgium); Mr Nicola Erriquez (Italy); Dr. Claudio Cimino (Italy); and Ms Saadet Güner (Turkey). At the closing session participants to the Conference proposed that a Follow up Committee worked at the establishment of a specialised international NGO dealing with the protection of cultural heritage during times of conflict.